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Family processes consist of the ways in which family influences operate to affect children’s well-being. They include parenting styles, the provision of family environments, and health habits that may be beneficial or detrimental to children’s heath. We also include in this category two parental characteristics that affect parenting—mental health and substance abuse. As an infant continues his or her explorations and trials, which themselves influence health, they produce reactions from caretakers that in turn further affect the infant’s behavior and health. One of the first developmental challenges faced by an infant is adaptation to extrauterine life.
Mothers may react with apathy or disinterest, which produces even more withdrawal on the part of the infant . While simplified schematics or models help to organize understanding of the influences on children’s health both during childhood and beyond, life is not as simple as these models suggest. This dimension of health connects your overall well-being to the health of your environment.
Low-birthweight infants experience more difficult transitions and are more likely to be fussy during social interactions and less likely to smile and vocalize (Beckwith and Rodning, 1992; Barnard and Kelly, 1990). These infant reactions in turn impose stresses on the parent, which may affect the child’s health through impaired attachment. In addition to the influence of explicit behaviors on health, a child’s internal emotional, attitude motivation, or belief states may exert effects on health.
Your environment, both your social and natural surroundings, can greatly impact how you feel. It can be hard to feel good if you are surrounded by clutter and disorganization, or if you feel unsafe in your environment. Pollution, violence, garbage buildup, and water conservation are some of the factors affecting environmental wellness. Ways to manage environmental wellness include creating neighborhood watches, recycling, planting a personal or community garden, purchasing products with minimal packaging, avoiding littering, and conserving energy and water by turning off lights and water when not in use. Although the nature and degree of family influences on children change over time, both experimental and nonexperimental evidence indicates that the family continues to have direct influence on a child’s decision making well into adolescence (Larson, 1974; Romer, 1994).
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Housing conditions can contribute to the incidence of asthma, injuries, and lead poisoning . As children age, they spend more time in physical locations outside the home, such as child care, school, and workplace settings that expose them to new physical environments. While attitudinal, motivational, cognitive, and emotional factors may all exert direct effects on health-related behaviors, the role of environmental factors in these behaviors should not be underestimated. As used in this report, behavior refers to a child’s emotions, beliefs, cognitions, and attitudes, as well as his or her overt behaviors.
- Becoming spiritually well means striving for consistency with our values and beliefs.
- It encompasses a high level of faith, hope, and commitment to our individual beliefs that provide a sense of meaning and purpose in human existence.
- For more information on these, go to Milestones in health promotion and the 7th Global Conference on Health Promotion.
- wellness, is president of SLK Wellness Concepts, an independent wellness resource for individuals, spas and organizations across North America.
- It is better to ponder the meaning of life for ourselves and to be tolerant of the beliefs of others than to close our minds and become intolerant.
An example of a positive susceptibility gene to a physical environmental agent may be that for perfect pitch. It appears that individuals with exposure to music and a family history of perfect pitch are more likely to acquire perfect pitch . Classically, genes have been considered to be the “instructions” for building proteins, although it is clear now that they have other functions as well.
Chaturvedi suggested that recognition of different kinds of effects from racism, including on children, could help to sort out the pathways by which the multifactorial and interacting influences affect various aspects of health. To that effect, a recent review provided added evidence for an effect of racism on health, including the documentation of racism as well as the mechanisms by which it operates. Community influences can originate in neighborhoods, schools, or other organizations and can operate through children’s peer groups, the adults with whom children come into contact, or the larger set of social and cultural practices in neighborhoods. Family and other environmental factors can be sources of either risk or resilience for the developing child, and it is crucial to understand that the child’s response to a specific stressor is influenced by a confluence of other influences.
Presumably such effects are conveyed through a child’s emotional arousal states, which in turn result in physiological changes, such as increased pulse and elevated blood pressure, glycemic, and immune responses. Behavioral influences on children’s health are often reciprocal, both influencing and influenced by parents, peers, and others. This section focuses on the internal psychological factors that underpin children’s behavior, with implications for subsequent health outcomes. Individuals with these genotypes are likely to be affected by the disease because they have a high chance of being exposed to the physical environmental agent. There are also gene alterations resulting from uncommon physical environmental exposures that affect health.
Some behaviors are planned and deliberate; others are reflexive, impulsive, and contingent on environmental circumstances. A child’s emotions, beliefs, and attitudes affect health, principally through the way they modify a child’s explicit and overt behaviors, such as his or her health and life-style choices. While biology, behavior, and environmental categories are useful for organizing our discussion, it is important to understand that healthy development is not the product of single, isolated influences or even types of influences. Warm and nurturing parenting is an important family influence, but prematurity or visual impairment can make an infant unresponsive to a mother’s initial nurturing.
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But many improvements in children’s health over the past century were also influenced by policies in areas how to lose weight other than health. Van Ryn and Fu proposed a pathway through which health provider behavior in clinical or public health settings contributes to discrimination. In this case, the pathway would be as relevant to children as to adults, as adults generally accompany children in health services encounters and act as proxy for them. Nazroo , reviewing evidence on ethnic discrimination from the United Kingdom, concluded that social and economic inequalities, underpinned by racism, are a fundamental source of ethnic inequalities in health across population subgroups.